Board of Directors

Dr. Lloyd Barnett
Chairman
University Council of Jamaica

Dr. Ethley London
Executive Director
University Council of Jamaica

Dr. Charlton Collie
Consultant Physician & Pulmonologist
Dept. of Medicine
University Hospital of the West Indies

Mr. Donald Foster
Executive Director
HEART Trust/NTA

Mrs. Elaine Foster-Allen
Principal
Shortwood Teachers’ College

Ms. Janice Holness
Director of Investigation and Enforcement
Financial Services Commission

Mr. John Lee
Partne
PriceWaterhouseCooper

Prof. Emerita Elsa Leo-Rhynie

Dr. Yvonnette Marshall
Senior Education Officer
Tertiary Unit, Ministry of Education

Prof. Errol Morrison
President
University of Technology, Jamaica

Dr. Claude Packer
President
Mico University College

Mrs. Dahlia Repole
Principal
Excelsior Community College

Mr. Charles Ross
Managing Director
Sterling Asset Management Ltd.

Prof. Gordon Shirley
Principal
University of the West Indies, Mona

Dr. David Smith
Managing Director
Smith Warner International Ltd.

Dr. Herbert Thompson
President
Northern Caribbean University

Prof. Neville Ying
Executive Director
Mona School of Business

GUIDELINES FOR REGISTRATION

Any institution seeking registration by the University Council of Jamaica must document its compliance with each of the following conditions:

1. The institution has a structure of governance which formulates general policies and exercises authority over the implementation of academic programmes.

2. The institution has a clearly defined and published statement of purposes (Mission Statement).

3. The institution has published admission policies compatible with its stated purpose.

4. The institution offers one or more educational programmes (or curricula) consistent with its mission.

5. The institution enrolls students in at least one tertiary/higher educational programme normally requiring at least one academic year for completion, and has students actively pursuing such a programme at the time of the Council’s evaluation.

6. The institution has a evaluation process which assists students in attaining a certificate, diploma or degree.

7. The institution has a plan, as well as a planning and evaluation process, which addresses its educational, physical and financial growth.

8. The institution has an adequate academic staff as well as administrative and technical support in terms of quality and quantity.

9. The institution owns sufficient learning resources or, ensures the provision of access to adequate learning resources and services required to support the courses and programees offered.

10. The institution has adequate accommodation.

11. The institution has available an audited statement made within the year prior to the Council’s visit.

PROCEDURES FOR REGISTRATION

1. The Director (Principal), of the institution interested in registration should obtain application forms from the University Council of Jamaica along with a copy of the guidelines for registration.

2. The institution should provide the information requested in the application form to document its compliance with the Guidelines for Registration. This submission constitutes a primary source of information used by the Council to evaluate the institution and to decide on its status with the Council.

3. The application will be reviewed by the University Council of Jamaica. If the review is favourable, a registration team will be formed to visit the institution at the schelduled mutually convenient date. The principal task of the registration team will be determined whether the institution is in compliance with the Guidelines for Registration.

4. The report of the registration team will be sent by the Council to the Principal of the institution who will be invited to review the report and submit a written response to the recommendations by a specified date.

5. The application, the registrations team’s report and the institution’s response to the report will be reviewed by the Accreditation, Curriculum and Development Committee of the Council. This committee will make its recommendations regarding registration of the institution, to the Council who after due consideration, make a decision on the institution’s registration status.

6. The institution will be informed of the Council’s decision by letter stating the conditions of registration. In the first instance, institutions will normally be registered for a period of four years during which time annual status report must be submitted to the Council. At the end of the registration period the institution must apply for re-registration.

7. After registration, the institution should endeavour to seek accreditation for one or more of its programmes.

8. The cost incurred by the registration process including maintenance must be borne by the institution. The Council will provide the relevant fee structure.

REGISTRATION OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

AIM AND PURPOSE OF REGISTRATION

The aim of registration is to certify that an institution meets certain minimum operation standards required for the conduct of a tertiary institution in Jamaica. It is also a first step towards accreditation of programmes offered by an institution.

Registration provides an institution with the opportunity to establish a formal, publicly recognized relationship with the University Council of Jamaica (UCJ), and is the recommended approach to seeking accreditation from the UCJ. Registration therefore is a pre-accreditation status. The criteria for registration are closely related to the criteria for accreditation since they are meant to provide registered institutions with a foundation for logical development towards accreditiation.

The Matrix

Introduction

The Matrix was a science fiction action film produced in America and Australia in 1999. It was directed and  written and by the Wachowski Brothers and starring Keanu Reeves, Hugo Weaving Carrie-Anne Moss, Laurence Fishburne and  Joe Pantoliano. It will be documented that throughout the movie the theme of fate vs. free will seems capture the whole atmosphere.

Theme of Fate

In regard to this film then as soon as Morpheus requests Neo to either choose a blue pill or a red pill he basically offers the choice stuck between fate and free will.  It generally accepted that the Neo’s decision to choose the red pill was very crucial since he chose to be part of the real world by making use of the petite amount of free will that Morpheus gave him. Fate dominates throughout in the Matrix since the actions are predetermined and world is pre-constructed. It clearly shows that all questions have answers and that any choice is simply an illusion of choice. In the reality humans have the power to transform their fate, make mistakes frequently and can take individual actions.

Neo at the end chooses the red pill which symbolizes real life but he learns that free will is not pretty. Truly the real world is a mess, destitute and dangerous. It will be realized that pleasure exists nearly in the whole world of the Matrix which is actually only a computer construct. Cypher regrets after selecting the red pill and in the end decides to go back to the Matrix and views that any pleasure whether false or true is superior than no pleasure at all. Neo, Trinity and Morpheus all value reality and free will no matter how unlikable they may be. The Matrix trilogy reveals that everybody has the personal responsibility to make the choice between an artificial world and the real world (Irwin, 2002).

Despite the fact that Neo is the paradigm of free will it happens that fate plays a major role in his escapade. Neo depends on the Oracle since what she says becomes correct in some way. Neo is guided to the right decision at each encounter with the Oracle and he is not required to demonstrate much in any of his free will. Morpheus on the hand describes the Oracle as a guide and not somebody who knows the future. She tells Seraph at the end of the trilogy that she truly knew nothing but only believed in herself. However, the fact that the Oracle was always right raised uncertainties about the free will of Neo (Bre, 2005).

Fate is usually invariable due to the fact that the world is fully pre-programmed. On the other hand the actions of the human beings are actually predetermined implying that free will does not truly exist. It follows that as soon as Morpheus proposes to Neo the opportunity to either wait in wonderland or track him along the rabbit hole he is in fact suggesting to him the option between free will and fate. From the movie we can truly say that when Neo first comes across the Oracle there is likelihood of him learning his identity and fate (2012, 10). From the final scene in the movie we realize that Trinity discloses that she is does not fear to admit her fate in falling in love with Neo. This clearly implies that the filmmaker clearly introduces awareness to the role of the making decision which is purely the central point of the free will and fate dichotomy.

From the matrix we can say that choice is merely a delusion when the trail you essentially choose has already been prearranged. The first scene of the film commences with a focused view that yields a notion that the world is in point of fact not real that there is somebody inspecting them. The central focus in this scene revolves around whether Neo will chose or denies choosing to be uninformed to the real world and proceed to subsist in the fake world or whether he chooses to speculate and take the risk to subsist in the real world and fail to be familiar with what lies ahead.

In addition, fate actually lies in the Neo’s choice to save trinity regardless of the impractical odds. This clearly demonstrates that he rationally recognized that selecting the door on the right would truly result to the guaranteed continued survival although it was an enslavement of humanity that was an option his predecessors irrationally made when he knew it be should be avoided.

Fear of a Black Hat

Introduction

Fear of a Black Hat is an American film on the evolution and how American hip hop has fared all through the years. The film depicts the perspective of a film maker, Nina Blackburn, who trails hard-core gangsta rappers by the name Niggas With Hats or N.W.H. the film covers the life of NWH by Nina Blackburn, their rise and fall and how they manage a wide range of parody. The film is told from the point of view of Nina Blackburn who analyses hip hop as a form of communication for her studies. She follows the NWH and familiarizes with the band members, their beliefs and their often strange behavior.

 

Rebellion as a result of Racism

Although a ‘mockumentary,’ Fear of a Black Hat addresses the theme of rebellion especially with a special focus on the back community. At the start of the film, we see that NWH, like most other blacks during the early 1990s, are struggling in their Tough neighborhood, USA.

The black community through N.W.H.’s rap group is depicted as a people with strange behavior. The NWH members wear outrageous headgear during their performances. This is seen as an act of rebellion as the NWH remember their ancestors and the slavery times. It is claimed that their ancestors during the slavery times used to work bare-headed in the sun and now the NWH claim that they want to wear hats as an act of rebelling and resisting the times that their hatless ancestors went through; they were too tired working all day to revolt but the NWH have the opportunity to rebel.

Another form of rebellion is the group’s use of such ‘outlawed’ and over hip hop graphic language that are seen by many as not being appropriate. Most of the group’s acts are of rebellious in nature, using lewd lyrics, ranting against the police and orchestrating violence. However, according to them, this is a socially relevant way of expressing themselves. Throughout the movie, it is hard to tell whether the NWH members are just being rebellious or just funny and want attention. Sometimes they use jaw dropping explanations for their vulgar language use and with songs like “Come and Pet the P.U.S.S.Y.” and “Booty Juice” may have some rebellion theme in them. Tasty-Taste raps that although they are anti-violence, anyone who says to the contrary “…I am going to bust a cap in your ass!” This basically shows that they will rebel anybody with a different opinion on them as it is their duty to bang anyboy with their guns. He further reveals that the guns they own are now registered with the state because it is a “state of siege.”

The rappers rebellious nature sees them not wanting to associate with Jam Boy’s lead rapper because it is rumored that he may have attended a prep school. This they feel will discredit their street credibility. In fact most of the time of NWH, they are in constant feuds with the other rap group, Jam Boys, especially, because of their lead singer. The rebellion goes a notch higher when a number of white managers die under some mysterious circumstances. It is suspected that they are involved in the murders of these managers. There is even more controversy when their song Kill Whitey seems to advocate killing of whites. One of their managers, an Italian called Deluca, was murdered although they claim they were out of town by then.

In their rap contests, the rappers seem to address the issue of racism that has made them rebellious. In excerpts from the lyrics of Just A Human, Tone Deaf raps, “im just a human just a human being… Cause we are all one race on this planet.” He warns on some races acting as being superior to others rapping further thus,

we all burp and fart, and that’s the way God planned it

So don’t act like your superior

eat something bad an just like me you’ll get diarrhea

Cause black, white, yellow, red, brown or gold

Even when discussing the title of the new album with Nina Blackburn, Ice Cold replies to her after she asks the name of the album, “But see actually that shit was suppose to be “NWH: Fear Of A Black Hat,” subtitled “Don’t Shoot ‘Til You See The Whites.”

 

Although the film is a comedy, it addresses the theme of rebellion which was brought about by racism on the black community. Racism has seen some members of the black community disrespect the white people as seen in their rap songs and disrespect for the federal state which is basically white dominated.

Pathophysiology

1.  Describe the 4 different types of hypersensitivity reactions and give an example of each. (8 points)

Hypersensitivity reactions are classified into four types:

i) Type I – Immediate hypersensitivity reactions

This is an allergic reaction induced by a specific antigen called an allergen usually provoked by reexposure to the same antigen and meditated by IgE antibodies. This result into an immediate local reaction called anaphylaxis.

Example: Anaphylaxis Atopic disorder
ii). Type II – Cytotoxic antibody reactions

In type II hypersensitivity, the antibodies produced during the immune response recognize and bind the antigens which form complexes that activate “classical pathway” generating mediators of acute inflammation at the site resulting to the creation of a membrane defect.

Example: autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Hemolytic disease of the new born.
iii). Type III – Immune complex reactions

In type II hypersensitivity, soluble immune complexes form in the circulation and deposit in various tissues and may trigger the classical pathway of complement activation. Mediators of acute inflammation are generated at the site of immune complex disposition.

Example: Serum sickness
iv). Type IV – Delayed hypersensitivity reaction

In type IV, helper T cells and CD8 cytotoxic cells are able to recognize extracellular and intracellular synthesized antigen when it is complexed with either class I or II MHC molecules.

Example: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

 

 

2. Which cells are responsible for the release of histamine during a hypersensitivity reaction? (2 points)

They are the mast cells. The mast cells are scattered throughout the connective tissues of the body and store a number of different chemical mediators and upon stimulation by allergen, they release contents of their granules to surrounding places.

 

 

 

3. What does atopic mean in relation to patients with allergies? ( 2 points)

Atopic is a kind of allergy that is hereditary in nature and is characterized by an individual being able to produce high quantities of IgE histamines in response to allergens in the environment including cat dander, foods, pollen, dust, etc. The allergy becomes apparent only minutes after exposure.

 

 

4. What are the symptoms of a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction- name 4? Which two are of the most concern?(6 points)

1. Allergic rhinitis which is associated with hay fever

2. Allergic asthma

3. Atopic

4. Systematic anaphylaxis

 

The two of concern are;

1. Asthma that may induce a life threatening impaired breathing leading to anaphylactic shock.

2. Atopic

 

5. Describe desensitization therapy used to treat type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. ( 4 points)

Desensitization therapy refers to the treatment that is suggested to hypersensitive people. Desensitization therefore is a procedure that alters the immune response to a drug and results in temporary tolerance allowing the allergic patient to receive uninterrupted medication safely.  Desensitization for type I hypersensitivity reactions in penicillin allergic patients is usually recommended. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are also important therapeutic tools with type I hypersensitivity. The mAbs target specific proteins and provide an efficient means of exploiting understanding of the disease mechanism to maximize therapeutic efficacy.

 

6. Describe the hypersensitivity reaction between a mother and her unborn fetus. (2 points)

This is an allergic reaction to the mother that stems from her unborn baby. It is a rare condition whereby the mother gets allergic to hormones that get produced in the growing baby, a condition called Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy.

 

7. What is Graves’ disease? (2 points)

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease in which a person’s own immune system attacks the thyroid gland and causing it to produce too much thyroxine causing the thyroid to expand twice its size and becomes more overactive leading to increased muscle weakness, heartbeat, and irritability.

 

8. What is alloimmunity? (2 points)

Alloimmunity is defined as the development of reactions to antigens that are produced by members of the same species as the body will recognize them as foreign and attack them as they would do if it were exposed to antigens from other organisms. Therefore, Alloimmunity is an immune response to antigens from members of the same species.

 

9. Why is type O blood referred to commonly as a “universal donor?” (2 points)

Blood group O is a universal donor because it lacks antigens and so when transferred to any other blood group, the antibody of the receiver will not react because blood group O has no antigens and hence there will be no clumping as result of the donated blood.

 

10. What happens when a patient receives the wrong blood type? (2 points)

If a patient receives the wrong blood type, then antibodies that the patient already has in his/her body will attack the donor blood’s red cells and destroy them resulting to allergic reactions, fever, back pain, chills, bleeding and may even result to death.

 

11. What type of antigens are present on type A blood? Type B blood? Type AB blood? Type O blood? (4 points)

Type A blood – antigen A

Type B blood – antigen B

Type AB blood – both A and B antigens

Type O blood – neither A or B antigen

12. What is the difference between primary and secondary immunodeficiencies? (2 points)

The differences between primary and secondary immunodeficiencies are basically based on the causes. Primary immunodeficiency is inherited (hereditary immunodeficiency) and therefore present at birth while secondary immunodeficiency is acquired or triggered after birth and therefore it is due to an underlying condition.

 

13. What cells do the HIV virus infect? (2 points)

The helper T cells

 

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Mister Roberts and Preventative Medicine

You are to compare and contrast the play and the video.

Heggen’s “Mister Roberts” play and the video “Preventive Medicine” are set in World War II contain episodes obtained the setting of World War II in which the colonels have a problem with their team. In both, there are disagreements on the behavior of their leaders pushing the leaders towards war without proper care of their needs such as food. An effective resolution is made in both to defy the directions of their bosses. For instance, in “preventive medicine” Hawkeye seems to mind more on attending to injuries without any other indication on his face of caring for the 4077th crew. On the other hand, Mr. Roberts joins his frustrated and bored men in the cargo ship in to express their hatred for the captain who is so tyrannical.

 

Analyze how the authors and the characters use comedy to ease the tension of the war.

Tension in war normally increases when the commander or a colonel does not impart substantial confidence on the men in war and also managing stress of all types ranging from hunger, injuries to being overwhelmed by enemies. The authors place some characters strategically to provide to ease tension of fellow men of war. The author of the video, Preventive Medicine uses one man to protest against the same meals everyday in the mess. He does this protest is such amusing way by first beginning with a nag, a loud quarrel and shouting to the cook, splashing the food to the wall, starting a protest chant, climbing on the tables and soon everybody follows suit. The statement of BJ to Hawkeye about Radar being just their and the consequent joke that Hawkeye will be receiving casualties around ten minutes turns out to be dramatic when there is a sudden announcement from the PA that casualties were being flown in.

Similarly, In “Mister Roberts”, the desires and struggle of Mr. Robert to be transferred to work in combat duty finally are granted. Drama arises that when Robert is killed in combat, although scary to the readers, it relieves tension. Robert’s conflicting relationship with the captain, who has a good rapport with the men in the ship, tends to ease tension, since, if Robert who is one of the officers was to stick to the office and side with captain, the monotony and tediousness of the men would have made them more disillusioned. Instead, the author uses Robert to bring about a relaxed to side with the men such that they are shielded from the captain’s tyrannical rules.

Does the humor minimize the seriousness of what is happening to the soldiers?

It is true that humor exits in both the movie and Heggen’s story and this is a prove that war zones is not all about tears but there are sources of laughter and the men of war can occasionally afford a smile. In the video “MASH” episode, the overly righteous Doctor who thinks he is an efficient doctor, but it is humorous, to see him continuing drinking. He hears the Radar but gets busy drinking. Nobody can tell how the meat on the fork of Colonel Lacy disappears when he is talking to a colleague named Margaret. The meat reappears within a shot time. On the other hand Mister Roberts shows, with a great expression of humor, a side of war that is normally not remembered since it does not involve carrying of guns. It is described by neither the excitement nor the heroism of battle, but the boredom of the men assigned with work regarded less as glamorous work, where the enemies of a soldier are not in many cases the officers who control him or have power over him, rather than the soldiers and probably sailors of the opposing forces.

Describe a moment which you appreciate the most in either work.

The video MASHA is quite catchy in the episode 22. I like the interactions between BJ and Hawkeye especially when the former asks the self righteous Doctor, “What the hell do you think you’re doing?” and the answer given by the never smiling doctor will leave anybody busting in laughter ‘Taking out that guy’s appendix in there. You gonna get into your whites or what?” In this video, everybody seems to work lonely and busy avoiding one another’s interruption as much as possible. In Mister Robert, the soldiers seem to be locked out of the opportunity of ever being heroes, probably the reason why Robert fight to go for combat to secure an opportunity of becoming one. The experiences of the soldiers indicated in the play also illustrate some of the cosmic incidents that characterize war such the one in the video and the play.

Give reasons for your reaction to these works which often deal with tragic occurrence.

Indeed, some works are taken for reasons other than earning income such as adventurer and sometimes being forced. In either case, once one is in the system, both the thoughts and actions of an individual are governed by rules. I find this the worst idea about these kind of work. Most often, the Colonels or officers in charge of a crew take advantage of this and manipulate the soldiers in a certain dehumanizing manner. Being denied a chance to eat well, to socialize with and the right to proper medical care during war is one of the reasons why this work should not be given priority.